Corporation Law, Mercantile Law

40 FREQUENTLY ASKED PROVISIONS OF THE REVISED CORPORATION CODE [Updated]

SECTION. 1. Title of the Code. – This Code shall be known as the “Revised Corporation Code of the Philippines”.

SEC. 2. Corporation Defined. – A corporation is an artificial being created by operation of law, having the right of succession and the powers, attributes, and properties expressly authorized by law or incidental to its existence.

SEC. 42. Power to Declare Dividends. – The board of directors of a stock corporation may declare dividends out of the unrestricted retained earnings which shall be payable in cash, property, or in stock to all stockholders on the basis of outstanding stock held by them: Provided, That any cash dividends due on delinquent stock shall first be applied to the unpaid balance on the subscription plus costs and expenses, while stock dividends shall be withheld from the delinquent stockholders until their unpaid subscription is fully paid: Provided, further, That no stock dividend shall be issued without the approval of stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock at a regular or special meeting duly called for the purpose.

Stock corporations are prohibited from retaining surplus profits in excess of one hundred percent (100%) of their paid-in capital stock, except: (a) when justified by definite corporate expansion projects or programs approved by the board of directors; or (b) when the corporation is prohibited under any loan agreement with financial institutions or creditors, whether local or foreign, from declaring dividends without their consent, and such consent has not yet been secured; or (c) when it can be clearly shown that such retention is necessary under special circumstances obtaining in the corporation, such as when there is need for special reserve for probable contingencies.

SEC. 38. Power to Deny Preemptive Right. – All stockholders of a stock corporation shall enjoy preemptive right to subscribe to all issues or disposition of shares of any class, in proportion to their respective shareholdings, unless such right is denied by the articles of incorporation or an amendment thereto: Provided, That such preemptive right shall not extend to shares issued in compliance with laws requiring stock offerings or minimum stock ownership by the public; or to shares issued in good faith with the approval of the stockholders representing two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock, in exchange for property needed for corporate purposes or in payment of a previously contracted debt.

SEC. 139. Corporate Liquidation. – Except for banks, which shall be covered by the applicable provisions of Republic Act No. 7653, otherwise known as the “New Central Bank Act”, as amended, and Republic Act No. 3591, otherwise known as the Philippine Deposit Insurance Corporation Charter, as amended, every corporation whose charter expires pursuant to its articles of incorporation, is annulled by forfeiture, or whose corporate existence is terminated in any other manner, shall nevertheless remain as a body corporate for three (3) years after the effective date of dissolution, for the purpose of prosecuting and defending suits by or against it and enabling it to settle and close its affairs, dispose of and convey its property, and distribute its assets, but not for the purpose of continuing the business for which it was established.

At any time during said three (3) years, the corporation is authorized and empowered to convey all of its property to trustees for the benefit of stockholders, members, creditors and other persons in interest. After any such conveyance by the corporation of its property in trust for the benefit of its stockholders, members, creditors and others in interest, all interest which the corporation had in the property terminates, the legal interest vests in the trustees, and the beneficial interest in the stockholders, members, creditors or other persons-in-interest.

Except as otherwise provided for in Sections 93 and 94 of this Code, upon the winding up of corporate affairs, any asset distributable to any creditor or stockholder or member who is unknown or cannot be found shall be escheated in favor of the national government.

Except by decrease of capital stock and as otherwise allowed by this Code, no corporation shall distribute any of its assets or property except upon lawful dissolution and after payment of all its debts and liabilities.

SEC. 40. Power to Acquire Own Shares. – Provided that the corporation has unrestricted retained earnings in its books to cover the shares to be purchased or acquired, a stock corporation shall have the power to purchase or acquire its own shares for a legitimate corporate purpose or purposes, including the following cases:

(a) To eliminate fractional shares arising out of stock dividends;

(b) To collect or compromise an indebtedness to the corporation, arising out of unpaid subscription, in a delinquency sale, and to purchase delinquent shares sold during said sale; and

(c) To pay dissenting or withdrawing stockholders entitled to payment for their shares under the provisions of this Code.

SEC. 41. Power to Invest Corporate Funds in Another Corporation or Business or for Any Other Purpose. – Subject to the provisions of this Code, a private corporation may invest its funds in any other corporation, business, or for any purpose other than the primary purpose for which it was organized, when approved by a majority of the board of directors or trustees and ratified by the stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock, or by at least two thirds (2/3) of the members in the case of nonstock corporations, at a meeting duly called for the purpose. Notice of the proposed investment and the time and place of the meeting shall be addressed to each stockholder or member at the place of residence as shown in the books of the corporation and deposited to the addressee in the post office with postage prepaid, served personally, or sent electronically in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Commission on the use of electronic data message, when allowed by the bylaws or done with the consent of the stockholders: Provided, That any dissenting stockholder shall have appraisal right as provided in this Code: Provided, however, That where the investment by the corporation is reasonably necessary to accomplish its primary purpose as stated in the articles of incorporation, the approval of the stockholders or members shall not be necessary.

SEC. 62. Certificate of Stock and Transfer of Shares. – The capital stock of corporations shall be divided into shares for which certificates signed by the president or vice president, countersigned by the secretary or assistant secretary, and sealed with the seal of the corporation shall be issued in accordance with the bylaws. Shares of stock so issued are personal property and may be transferred by delivery of the certificate or certificates indorsed by the owner, his attorney- in-fact, or any other person legally authorized to make the transfer. No transfer, however, shall be valid, except as between the parties, until the transfer is recorded in the books of the corporation showing the names of the parties to the transaction, the date of the transfer, the number of the certificate or certificates, and the number of shares transferred. The Commission may require corporations whose securities are traded in trading markets and which can reasonably demonstrate their capability to do so to issue their securities or shares of stocks in uncertificated or scripless form in accordance with the rules of the Commission.

No shares of stock against which the corporation holds any unpaid claim shall be transferable in the books of the corporation.

SEC. 63. Issuance of Stock Certificates. – No certificate of stock shall be issued to a subscriber until the full amount of the subscription together with interest and expenses (in case of delinquent shares), if any is due, has been paid.

SEC. 64. Liability of Directors for Watered Stocks. – A director or officer of a corporation who: (a) consents to the issuance of stocks for a consideration less than its par or issued value; (b) consents to the issuance of stocks for a consideration other than cash, valued in excess of its fair value; or (c) having knowledge of the insufficient consideration, does not file a written objection with the corporate secretary, shall be liable to the corporation or its creditors, solidarily with the stockholder concerned for the difference between the value received at the time of issuance of the stock and the par or issued value of the same.

SEC. 3. Classes of Corporations. – Corporations formed or organized under this Code may be stock or nonstock corporations. Stock corporations are those which have capital stock divided into shares and are authorized to distribute to the holders of such shares, dividends, or allotments of the surplus profits on the basis of the shares held. All other corporations are nonstock corporations.

SEC. 13. Contents of the Articles of Incorporation. – All corporations shall file with the Commission articles of incorporation in any of the official languages, duly signed and acknowledged or authenticated, in such form and manner as may be allowed by the Commission, containing substantially the following matters, except as otherwise prescribed by this Code or by special law:

(a) The name of the corporation;

(b) The specific purpose or purposes for which the corporation is being formed. Where a corporation has more than one stated purpose, the articles of incorporation shall indicate the primary purpose and the secondary purpose or purposes: Provided, That a nonstock corporation may not include a purpose which would change or contradict its nature as such;

(c) The place where the principal office of the corporation is to be located, which must be within the Philippines;

(d) The term for which the corporation is to exist, if the corporation has not elected perpetual existence;

(e) The names, nationalities, and residence addresses of the incorporators;

(f) The number of directors, which shall not be more than fifteen (15) or the number of trustees which may be more than fifteen (15);

(g) The names, nationalities, and residence addresses of persons who shall act as directors or trustees until the first regular directors or trustees are duly elected and qualified in accordance with this Code;

(h) If it be a stock corporation, the amount of its authorized capital stock, number of shares into which it is divided, the par value of each, names, nationalities, and residence addresses of the original subscribers, amount subscribed and paid by each on the subscription, and a statement that some or all of the shares are without par value, if applicable;

(i) If it be a nonstock corporation, the amount of its capital, the names, nationalities, and residence addresses of the contributors, and amount contributed by each; and

(j)Such other matters consistent with law and which the incorporators may deem necessary and convenient.

An arbitration agreement may be provided in the articles of incorporation pursuant to Section 181 of this Code.

The articles of incorporation and applications for amendments thereto may be filed with the Commission in the form of an electronic document, in accordance with the Commission’s rules and regulations on electronic filing.

SEC. 37. Power to Increase or Decrease Capital Stock; Incur, Create or Increase Bonded Indebtedness. – No corporation shall increase or decrease its capital stock or incur, create or increase any bonded indebtedness unless approved by a majority vote of the board of directors and by two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock at a stockholders’ meeting duly called for the purpose. Written notice of the time and place of the stockholders’ meeting and the purpose for said meeting must be sent to the stockholders at their places of residence as shown in the books of the corporation and served on the stockholders personally, or through electronic means recognized in the corporation’s bylaws and/or the Commission’s rules as a valid mode for service of notices.

A certificate must be signed by a majority of the directors of the corporation and countersigned by the chairperson and secretary of the stockholders’ meeting, setting forth:

(a) That the requirements of this section have been complied with; (b) The amount of the increase or decrease of the capital stock;

(c) In case of an increase of the capital stock, the amount of capital stock or number of shares of no-par stock thereof actually subscribed, the names, nationalities and addresses of the persons subscribing, the amount of capital stock or number of no-par stock subscribed by each, and the amount paid by each on the subscription in cash or property, or the amount of capital stock or number of shares of no-par stock allotted to each stockholder if such increase is for the purpose of making effective stock dividend therefor authorized;

(d) Any bonded indebtedness to be incurred, created or increased;

(e) The amount of stock represented at the meeting; and

(f) The vote authorizing the increase or decrease of the capital stock, or the incurring, creating or increasing of any bonded indebtedness.

Any increase or decrease in the capital stock or the incurring, creating or increasing of any bonded indebtedness shall require prior approval of the Commission, and where appropriate, of the Philippine Competition Commission. The application with the Commission shall be made within six (6) months from the date of approval of the board of directors and stockholders, which period may be extended for justifiable reasons.

Copies of the certificate shall be kept on file in the office of the corporation and filed with the Commission and attached to the original articles of incorporation. After approval by the Commission and the issuance by the Commission of its certificate of filing, the capital stock shall be deemed increased or decreased and the incurring, creating or increasing of any bonded indebtedness authorized, as the certificate of filing may declare: Provided, That the Commission shall not accept for filing any certificate of increase of capital stock unless accompanied by a sworn statement of the treasurer of the corporation lawfully holding office at the time of the filing of the certificate, showing that at least twenty-five percent (25%) of the increase in capital stock has been subscribed and that at least twenty-five percent (25%) of the amount subscribed has been paid in actual cash to the corporation or that property, the valuation of which is equal to twenty-five percent (25%) of the subscription, has been transferred to the corporation: Provided, further, That no decrease in capital stock shall be approved by the Commission if its effect shall prejudice the rights of corporate creditors.

Nonstock corporations may incur, create or increase bonded indebtedness when approved by a majority of the board of trustees and of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members in a meeting duly called for the purpose.

Bonds issued by a corporation shall be registered with the Commission, which shall have the authority to determine the sufficiency of the terms thereof.

SEC. 31. Dealings of Directors, Trustees or Officers with the Corporation. – A contract of the corporation with (1) one or more of its directors, trustees, officers or their spouses and relatives within the fourth civil degree of consanguinity or affinity is voidable, at the option of such corporation, unless all the following conditions are present:

(a) The presence of such director or trustee in the board meeting in which the contract was approved was not necessary to constitute a quorum for such meeting;

(b) The vote of such director or trustee was not necessary for the approval of the contract; (c) The contract is fair and reasonable under the circumstances;

(d) In case of corporations vested with public interest, material contracts are approved by at least two-thirds (2/3) of the entire membership of the board, with at least a majority of the independent directors voting to approve the material contract; and

(e) In case of an officer, the contract has been previously authorized by the board of directors.

Where any of the first three (3) conditions set forth in the preceding paragraph is absent, in the case of a contract with a director or trustee, such contract may be ratified by the vote of the stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock or of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members in a meeting called for the purpose: Provided, That full disclosure of the adverse interest of the directors or trustees involved is made at such meeting and the contract is fair and reasonable under the circumstances.

SEC. 33. Disloyalty of a Director. – Where a director, by virtue of such office, acquires a business opportunity which should belong to the corporation, thereby obtaining profits to the prejudice of such corporation, the director must account for and refund to the latter all such profits, unless the act has been ratified by a vote of the stockholders owning or representing at least two- thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock. This provision shall be applicable, notwithstanding the fact that the director risked one’s own funds in the venture.

SEC. 35. Corporate Powers and Capacity. – Every corporation incorporated under this Code has the power and capacity:

(a) To sue and be sued in its corporate name;

(b) To have perpetual existence unless the certificate of incorporation provides otherwise;

(c) To adopt and use a corporate seal;

(d) To amend its articles of incorporation in accordance with the provisions of this Code;

(e) To adopt bylaws, not contrary to law, morals or public policy, and to amend or repeal the same in accordance with this Code;

(f) In case of stock corporations, to issue or sell stocks to subscribers and to sell treasury stocks in accordance with the provisions of this Code; and to admit members to the corporation if it be a nonstock corporation;

(g) To purchase, receive, take or grant, hold, convey, sell, lease, pledge, mortgage, and otherwise deal with such real and personal property, including securities and bonds of other corporations, as the transaction of the lawful business of the corporation may reasonably and necessarily require, subject to the limitations prescribed by law and the Constitution;

(h) To enter into a partnership, joint venture, merger, consolidation, or any other commercial agreement with natural and juridical persons;

(i) To make reasonable donations, including those for the public welfare or for hospital, charitable, cultural, scientific, civic, or similar purposes: Provided, That no foreign corporation shall give donations in aid of any political party or candidate or for purposes of partisan political activity;

(j) To establish pension, retirement, and other plans for the benefit of its directors, trustees, officers, and employees; and

(k) To exercise such other powers as may be essential or necessary to carry out its purpose or purposes as stated in the articles of incorporation.

SEC. 14. Form of Articles of Incorporation. – Unless otherwise prescribed by special law, the articles of incorporation of all domestic corporations shall comply substantially with the following form:

Articles of Incorporation of ______________________ (Name of Corporation)

The undersigned incorporators, all of legal age, have voluntarily agreed to form a (stock) (nonstock) corporation under the laws of the Republic of the Philippines and certify the following:

First: That the name of said corporation shall be “_______________, Inc., Corporation or OPC”;

Second: That the purpose or purposes for which such corporation is incorporated are: (If there is more than one purpose, indicate primary and secondary purposes);

Third: That the principal office of the corporation is located in the City/Municipality of ______________________, Province of _______________________, Philippines;

Fourth: That the corporation shall have perpetual existence or a term of ______________ years from the date of issuance of the certificate of incorporation;

Fifth: That the names, nationalities, and residence addresses of the incorporators of the corporation are as follows:

Name Nationality Residence

Sixth: That the number of directors or trustees of the corporation shall be _________________; and the names, nationalities, and residence addresses of the first directors or trustees of the corporation are as follows:

Name Nationality Residence

Seventh: That the authorized capital stock of the corporation is ______________ PESOS (P________), divided into _____ shares with the par value of ____________ PESOS (P_______________) per share. (In case all the shares are without par value): That the capital stock of the corporation is __________________________ shares without par value.

(In case some shares have par value and some are without par value): That the capital stock of said corporation consists of __________________________ shares, of which _______________________ shares have a par value of _________________ PESOS (P____________) each, and of which _______________________ shares are without par value.

Eighth: That the number of shares of the authorized capital stock above-stated has been subscribed as follows:


Name of Subscriber
NationalityNo. of Shares SubscribedAmount SubscribedAmount Paid

(Modify No. 8 if shares are with no-par value. In case the corporation is nonstock, Nos. 7 and 8 of the above articles may be modified accordingly, and it is sufficient if the articles state the amount of capital or money contributed or donated by specified persons, stating the names, nationalities, and residence addresses of the contributors or donors and the respective amount given by each.)

Ninth: That _____________________ has been elected by the subscribers as Treasurer of the Corporation to act as such until after the successor is duly elected and qualified in accordance with the bylaws, that as Treasurer, authority has been given to receive in the name and for the benefit of the corporation, all subscriptions, contributions or donations paid or given by the subscribers or members, who certifies the information set forth in the seventh and eighth clauses above, and that the paid-up portion of the subscription in cash and/or property for the benefit and credit of the corporation has been duly received.

Tenth: That the incorporators undertake to change the name of the corporation immediately upon receipt of notice from the Commission that another corporation, partnership or person has acquired a prior right to the use of such name, that the name has been declared not distinguishable from a name already registered or reserved for the use of another corporation, or that it is contrary to law, public morals, good customs or public policy.

Eleventh: (Corporations which will engage in any business or activity reserved for Filipino citizens shall provide the following):

“No transfer of stock or interest which shall reduce the ownership of Filipino citizens to less than the required percentage of capital stock as provided by existing laws shall be allowed or permitted to be recorded in the proper books of the corporation, and this restriction shall be indicated in all stock certificates issued by the corporation.”

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, we have hereunto signed these Articles of Incorporation, this _______ day of _____________, 20_____ in the City/Municipality of ______________________, Province of _______________________, Republic of the Philippines.

(Names and signatures of the incorporators) 

____________________     __________________

____________________     __________________

____________________     __________________

____________________     __________________

_______________________________________

(Name and signature of Treasurer) 

SEC. 150. Doing Business Without a License. – No foreign corporation transacting business in the Philippines without a license, or its successors or assigns, shall be permitted to maintain or intervene in any action, suit or proceeding in any court or administrative agency of the Philippines; but such corporation may be sued or proceeded against before Philippine courts or administrative tribunals on any valid cause of action recognized under Philippine laws.

SEC. 19. De facto Corporations. – The due incorporation of any corporation claiming in good faith to be a corporation under this Code, and its right to exercise corporate powers, shall not be inquired into collaterally in any private suit to which such corporation may be a party. Such inquiry may be made by the Solicitor General in a quo warranto proceeding.

SEC. 20. Corporation by Estoppel. – All persons who assume to act as a corporation knowing it to be without authority to do so shall be liable as general partners for all debts, liabilities and damages incurred or arising as a result thereof: Provided, however, That when any such ostensible corporation is sued on any transaction entered by it as a corporation or on any tort committed by it as such, it shall not be allowed to use its lack of corporate personality as a defense. Anyone who assumes an obligation to an ostensible corporation as such cannot resist performance thereof on the ground that there was in fact no corporation.

SEC. 27. Removal of Directors or Trustees. – Any director or trustee of a corporation may be removed from office by a vote of the stockholders holding or representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock, or in a nonstock corporation, by a vote of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members entitled to vote: Provided, That such removal shall take place either at a regular meeting of the corporation or at a special meeting called for the purpose, and in either case, after previous notice to stockholders or members of the corporation of the intention to propose such removal at the meeting. A special meeting of the stockholders or members for the purpose of removing any director or trustee must be called by the secretary on order of the president, or upon written demand of the stockholders representing or holding at least a majority of the outstanding capital stock, or a majority of the members entitled to vote. If there is no secretary, or if the secretary, despite demand, fails or refuses to call the special meeting or to give notice thereof, the stockholder or member of the corporation signing the demand may call for the meeting by directly addressing the stockholders or members. Notice of the time and place of such meeting, as well as of the intention to propose such removal, must be given by publication or by written notice prescribed in this Code. Removal may be with or without cause: Provided, That removal without cause may not be used to deprive minority stockholders or members of the right of representation to which they may be entitled under Section 23 of this Code.

The Commission shall, motu proprio or upon verified complaint, and after due notice and hearing, order the removal of a director or trustee elected despite the disqualification, or whose disqualification arose or is discovered subsequent to an election. The removal of a disqualified director shall be without prejudice to other sanctions that the Commission may impose on the board of directors or trustees who, with knowledge of the disqualification, failed to remove such director or trustee.

SEC. 22. The Board of Directors or Trustees of a Corporation; Qualification and Term. – Unless otherwise provided in this Code, the board of directors or trustees shall exercise the corporate powers, conduct all business, and control all properties of the corporation.

Directors shall be elected for a term of one (1) year from among the holders of stocks registered in the corporation’s books, while trustees shall be elected for a term not exceeding three (3) years from among the members of the corporation. Each director and trustee shall hold office until the successor is elected and qualified. A director who ceases to own at least one (1) share of stock or a trustee who ceases to be a member of the corporation shall cease to be such.

The board of the following corporations vested with public interest shall have independent directors constituting at least twenty percent (20%) of such board:

a) Corporations covered by Section 17.2 of Republic Act No. 8799, otherwise known as “The Securities Regulation Code”, namely those whose securities are registered with the Commission, corporations listed with an exchange or with assets of at least Fifty million pesos (P50,000,000.00) and having two hundred (200) or more holders of shares, each holding at least one hundred (100) shares of a class of its equity shares;

b) Banks and quasi-banks, NSSLAs, pawnshops, corporations engaged in money service business, pre-need, trust and insurance companies, and other financial intermediaries; and

c) Other corporations engaged in business vested with public interest similar to the above, as may be determined by the Commission, after taking into account relevant factors which are germane to the objective and purpose of requiring the election of an independent director, such as the extent of minority ownership, type of financial products or securities issued or offered to investors, public interest involved in the nature of business operations, and other analogous factors.

An independent director is a person who, apart from shareholdings and fees received from the corporation, is independent of management and free from any business or other relationship which could, or could reasonably be perceived to materially interfere with the exercise of independent judgment in carrying out the responsibilities as a director.

Independent directors must be elected by the shareholders present or entitled to vote in absentia during the election of directors. Independent directors shall be subject to rules and regulations governing their qualifications, disqualifications, voting requirements, duration of term and term limit, maximum number of board memberships and other requirements that the Commission will prescribe to strengthen their independence and align with international best practices.

SEC. 23. Election of Directors or Trustees. – Except when the exclusive right is reserved for holders of founders’ shares under Section 7 of this Code, each stockholder or member shall have the right to nominate any director or trustee who possesses all of the qualifications and none of the disqualifications set forth in this Code.

At all elections of directors or trustees, there must be present, either in person or through a representative authorized to act by written proxy, the owners of majority of the outstanding capital stock, or if there be no capital stock, a majority of the members entitled to vote. When so authorized in the bylaws or by a majority of the board of directors, the stockholders or members may also vote through remote communication or in absentia: Provided, That the right to vote through such modes may be exercised in corporations vested with public interest, notwithstanding the absence of a provision in the bylaws of such corporations.

A stockholder or member who participates through remote communication or in absentia, shall be deemed present for purposes of quorum.

The election must be by ballot if requested by any voting stockholder or member.

In stock corporations, stockholders entitled to vote shall have the right to vote the number of shares of stock standing in their own names in the stock books of the corporation at the time fixed in the bylaws or where the bylaws are silent, at the time of the election. The said stockholder may: (a) vote such number of shares for as many persons as there are directors to be elected; (b) cumulate said shares and give one (1) candidate as many votes as the number of directors to be elected multiplied by the number of the shares owned; or (c) distribute them on the same principle among as many candidates as may be seen fit: Provided, That the total number of votes cast shall not exceed the number of shares owned by the stockholders as shown in the books of the corporation multiplied by the whole number of directors to be elected: Provided, however, That no delinquent stock shall be voted. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or in the bylaws, members of nonstock corporations may cast as many votes as there are trustees to be elected but may not cast more than one (1) vote for one (1) candidate. Nominees for directors or trustees receiving the highest number of votes shall be declared elected.

If no election is held, or the owners of majority of the outstanding capital stock or majority of the members entitled to vote are not present in person, by proxy, or through remote communication or not voting in absentia at the meeting, such meeting may be adjourned and the corporation shall proceed in accordance with Section 25 of this Code.

The directors or trustees elected shall perform their duties as prescribed by law, rules of good corporate governance, and bylaws of the corporation.

SEC. 39. Sale or Other Disposition of Assets. – Subject to the provisions of Republic Act No. 10667, otherwise known as “Philippine Competition Act”, and other related laws, a corporation may, by a majority vote of its board of directors or trustees, sell, lease, exchange, mortgage, pledge, or otherwise dispose of its property and assets, upon such terms and conditions and for such consideration, which may be money, stocks, bonds, or other instruments for the payment of money or other property or consideration, as its board of directors or trustees may deem expedient.

A sale of all or substantially all of the corporation’s properties and assets, including its goodwill, must be authorized by the vote of the stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock, or at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members, in a stockholders’ or members’ meeting duly called for the purpose.

In nonstock corporations where there are no members with voting rights, the vote of at least a majority of the trustees in office will be sufficient authorization for the corporation to enter into any transaction authorized by this section.

The determination of whether or not the sale involves all or substantially all of the corporation’s properties and assets must be computed based on its net asset value, as shown in its latest financial statements. A sale or other disposition shall be deemed to cover substantially all the corporate property and assets if thereby the corporation would be rendered incapable of continuing the business or accomplishing the purpose for which it was incorporated.

Written notice of the proposed action and of the time and place for the meeting shall be addressed to stockholders or members at their places of residence as shown in the books of the corporation and deposited to the addressee in the post office with postage prepaid, served personally, or when allowed by the bylaws or done with the consent of the stockholder, sent electronically: Provided, That any dissenting stockholder may exercise the right of appraisal under the conditions provided in this Code.

After such authorization or approval by the stockholders or members, the board of directors or trustees may, nevertheless, in its discretion, abandon such sale, lease, exchange, mortgage, pledge, or other disposition of property and assets, subject to the rights of third parties under any contract relating thereto, without further action or approval by the stockholders or members.

Nothing in this section is intended to restrict the power of any corporation, without the authorization by the stockholders or members, to sell, lease, exchange, mortgage, pledge, or otherwise dispose of any of its property and assets if the same is necessary in the usual and regular course of business of the corporation or if the proceeds of the sale or other disposition of such property and assets shall be appropriated for the conduct of its remaining business.

SEC. 30. Liability of Directors, Trustees or Officers. – Directors or trustees who willfully and knowingly vote for or assent to patently unlawful acts of the corporation or who are guilty of gross negligence or bad faith in directing the affairs of the corporation or acquire any personal or pecuniary interest in conflict with their duty as such directors or trustees shall be liable jointly and severally for all damages resulting therefrom suffered by the corporation, its stockholders or members and other persons.

A director, trustee, or officer shall not attempt to acquire, or acquire any interest adverse to the corporation in respect of any matter which has been reposed in them in confidence, and upon which, equity imposes a disability upon themselves to deal in their own behalf; otherwise the said director, trustee, or officer shall be liable as a trustee for the corporation and must account for the profits which otherwise would have accrued to the corporation.

SEC. 44. Ultra Vires Acts of Corporations. – No corporation shall possess or exercise corporate powers other than those conferred by this Code or by its articles of incorporation and except as necessary or incidental to the exercise of the powers conferred.

SEC. 61. Consideration for Stocks. – Stocks shall not be issued for a consideration less than the par or issued price thereof. Consideration for the issuance of stock may be:

(a) Actual cash paid to the corporation;

(b) Property, tangible or intangible, actually received by the corporation and necessary or convenient for its use and lawful purposes at a fair valuation equal to the par or issued value of the stock issued;

(c) Labor performed for or services actually rendered to the corporation;

(d) Previously incurred indebtedness of the corporation;

(e) Amounts transferred from unrestricted retained earnings to stated capital;

(f) Outstanding shares exchanged for stocks in the event of reclassification or conversion; (g) Shares of stock in another corporation; and/or

(h) Other generally accepted forms of consideration.

Where the consideration is other than actual cash, or consists of intangible property such as patents or copyrights, the valuation thereof shall initially be determined by the stockholders or the board of directors, subject to the approval of the Commission.

Shares of stock shall not be issued in exchange for promissory notes or future service. The same considerations provided in this section, insofar as applicable, may be used for the issuance of bonds by the corporation.

The issued price of no-par value shares may be fixed in the articles of incorporation or by the board of directors pursuant to authority conferred by the articles of incorporation or the bylaws, or if not so fixed, by the stockholders representing at least a majority of the outstanding capital stock at a meeting duly called for the purpose.

SEC. 70. Effect of Delinquency. – No delinquent stock shall be voted for, be entitled to vote, or be represented at any stockholder’s meeting, nor shall the holder thereof be entitled to any of the rights of a stockholder except the right to dividends in accordance with the provisions of this Code, until and unless payment is made by the holder of such delinquent stock for the amount due on the subscription with accrued interest, and the costs and expenses of advertisement, if any.

SEC. 79. Effects of Merger or Consolidation. – The merger or consolidation shall have the following effects:

(a) The constituent corporations shall become a single corporation which, in case of merger, shall be the surviving corporation designated in the plan of merger; and, in case of consolidation, shall be the consolidated corporation designated in the plan of consolidation;

(b) The separate existence of the constituent corporations shall cease, except that of the surviving or the consolidated corporation;

(c) The surviving or the consolidated corporation shall possess all the rights, privileges, immunities, and powers and shall be subject to all the duties and liabilities of a corporation organized under this Code;

(d) The surviving or the consolidated corporation shall possess all the rights, privileges, immunities and franchises of each constituent corporation; and all real or personal property, all receivables due on whatever account, including subscriptions to shares and other choses in action, and every other interest of, belonging to, or due to each constituent corporation, shall be deemed transferred to and vested in such surviving or consolidated corporation without further act or deed; and

(e) The surviving or consolidated corporation shall be responsible for all the liabilities and obligations of each constituent corporation as though such surviving or consolidated corporation had itself incurred such liabilities or obligations; and any pending claim, action or proceeding brought by or against any constituent corporation may be prosecuted by or against the surviving or consolidated corporation. The rights of creditors or liens upon the property of such constituent corporations shall not be impaired by the merger or consolidation.

NONSTOCK CORPORATION

SEC. 86. Definition. – For purposes of this Code and subject to its provisions on dissolution, a nonstock corporation is one where no part of its income is distributable as dividends to its members, trustees, or officers: Provided, That any profit which a nonstock corporation may obtain incidental to its operations shall, whenever necessary or proper, be used for the furtherance of the purpose or purposes for which the corporation was organized, subject to the provisions of this Title.

The provisions governing stock corporations, when pertinent, shall be applicable to nonstock corporations, except as may be covered by specific provisions of this Title.

SEC. 134. Voluntary Dissolution Where No Creditors are Affected. – If dissolution of a corporation does not prejudice the rights of any creditor having a claim against it, the dissolution may be effected by majority vote of the board of directors or trustees, and by a resolution adopted by the affirmative vote of the stockholders owning at least majority of the outstanding capital stock or majority of the members of a meeting to be held upon the call of the directors or trustees.

At least twenty (20) days prior to the meeting, notice shall be given to each shareholder or member of record personally, by registered mail, or by any means authorized under its bylaws whether or not entitled to vote at the meeting, in the manner provided in Section 50 of this Code and shall state that the purpose of the meeting is to vote on the dissolution of the corporation. Notice of the time, place, and object of the meeting shall be published once prior to the date of the meeting in a newspaper published in the place where the principal office of said corporation is located, or if no newspaper is published in such place, in a newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines.

A verified request for dissolution shall be filed with the Commission stating: (a) the reason for the dissolution; (b) the form, manner, and time when the notices were given; (c) names of the stockholders and directors or members and trustees who approved the dissolution; (d) the date, place, and time of the meeting in which the vote was made; and (e) details of publication.

The corporation shall submit the following to the Commission: (1) a copy of the resolution authorizing the dissolution, certified by a majority of the board of directors or trustees and countersigned by the secretary of the corporation; (2) proof of publication; and (3) favorable recommendation from the appropriate regulatory agency, when necessary.

Within fifteen (15) days from receipt of the verified request for dissolution, and in the absence of any withdrawal within said period, the Commission shall approve the request and issue the certificate of dissolution. The dissolution shall take effect only upon the issuance by the Commission of a certificate of dissolution.

No application for dissolution of banks, banking and quasi-banking institutions, preneed, insurance and trust companies, NSSLAs, pawnshops, and other financial intermediaries shall be approved by the Commission unless accompanied by a favorable recommendation of the appropriate government agency.

SEC. 135. Voluntary Dissolution Where Creditors are Affected; Procedure and Contents of Petition. – Where the dissolution of a corporation may prejudice the rights of any creditor, a verified petition for dissolution shall be filed with the Commission. The petition shall be signed by a majority of the corporation’s board of directors or trustees, verified by its president or secretary or one of its directors or trustees, and shall set forth all claims and demands against it, and that its dissolution was resolved upon by the affirmative vote of the stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock or at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members at a meeting of its stockholders or members called for that purpose. The petition shall likewise state: (a) the reason for the dissolution; (b) the form, manner, and time when the notices were given; and (c) the date, place, and time of the meeting in which the vote was made. The corporation shall submit to the Commission the following: (1) a copy of the resolution authorizing the dissolution, certified by a majority of the board of directors or trustees and countersigned by the secretary of the corporation; and (2) a list of all its creditors.

If the petition is sufficient in form and substance, the Commission shall, by an order reciting the purpose of the petition, fix a deadline for filing objections to the petition which date shall not be less than thirty (30) days nor more than sixty (60) days after the entry of the order. Before such date, a copy of the order shall be published at least once a week for three (3) consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation published in the municipality or city where the principal office of the corporation is situated, or if there be no such newspaper, then in a newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines, and a similar copy shall be posted for three (3) consecutive weeks in three (3) public places in such municipality or city.

Upon five (5) days’ notice, given after the date on which the right to file objections as fixed in the order has expired, the Commission shall proceed to hear the petition and try any issue raised in the objections filed; and if no such objection is sufficient, and the material allegations of the petition are true, it shall render judgment dissolving the corporation and directing such disposition of its assets as justice requires, and may appoint a receiver to collect such assets and pay the debts of the corporation.

The dissolution shall take effect only upon the issuance by the Commission of a certificate of dissolution.

SEC. 6. Classification of Shares. – The classification of shares, their corresponding rights, privileges, or restrictions, and their stated par value, if any, must be indicated in the articles of incorporation. Each share shall be equal in all respects to every other share, except as otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation and in the certificate of stock.

The shares in stock corporations may be divided into classes or series of shares, or both. No share may be deprived of voting rights except those classified and issued as “preferred” or “redeemable” shares, unless otherwise provided in this Code: Provided, That there shall always be a class or series of shares with complete voting rights.

Holders of nonvoting shares shall nevertheless be entitled to vote on the following matters:

(a) Amendment of the articles of incorporation;

(b) Adoption and amendment of bylaws;

(c) Sale, lease, exchange, mortgage, pledge, or other disposition of all or substantially all of the corporate property;

(d) Incurring, creating, or increasing bonded indebtedness;

(e) Increase or decrease of authorized capital stock;

(f) Merger or consolidation of the corporation with another corporation or other corporations;

(g) Investment of corporate funds in another corporation or business in accordance with this Code; and

(h) Dissolution of the corporation.

Except as provided in the immediately preceding paragraph, the vote required under this Code to approve a particular corporate act shall be deemed to refer only to stocks with voting rights.

The shares or series of shares may or may not have a par value: Provided, That banks, trust, insurance, and preneed companies, public utilities, building and loan associations, and other corporations authorized to obtain or access funds from the public, whether publicly listed or not, shall not be permitted to issue no-par value shares of stock.

Preferred shares of stock issued by a corporation may be given preference in the distribution of dividends and in the distribution of corporate assets in case of liquidation, or such other preferences: Provided, That preferred shares of stock may be issued only with a stated par value. The board of directors, where authorized in the articles of incorporation, may fix the terms and conditions of preferred shares of stock or any series thereof: Provided, further, That such terms and conditions shall be effective upon filing of a certificate thereof with the Securities and Exchange Commission, hereinafter referred to as the “Commission”.

Shares of capital stock issued without par value shall be deemed fully paid and nonassessable and the holder of such shares shall not be liable to the corporation or to its creditors in respect thereto: Provided, That no-par value shares must be issued for a consideration of at least Five pesos (P5.00) per share: Provided, further, That the entire consideration received by the corporation for its no-par value shares shall be treated as capital and shall not be available for distribution as dividends.

A corporation may further classify its shares for the purpose of ensuring compliance with constitutional or legal requirements.

SEC. 32. Contracts Between Corporations with Interlocking Directors. – Except in cases of fraud, and provided the contract is fair and reasonable under the circumstances, a contract between two (2) or more corporations having interlocking directors shall not be invalidated on that ground alone: Provided, That if the interest of the interlocking director in one (1) corporation is substantial and the interest in the other corporation or corporations is merely nominal, the contract shall be subject to the provisions of the preceding section insofar as the latter corporation or corporations are concerned.

Stockholdings exceeding twenty percent (20%) of the outstanding capital stock shall be considered substantial for purposes of interlocking directors.

SEC. 50. Place and Time of Meetings of Stockholders or Members. – Stockholders’ or members’ meetings, whether regular or special, shall be held in the principal office of the corporation as set forth in the articles of incorporation, or, if not practicable, in the city or municipality where the principal office of the corporation is located: Provided, That any city or municipality in Metro Manila, Metro Cebu, Metro Davao, and other Metropolitan areas shall, for purposes of this section, be considered a city or municipality.

Notice of meetings shall be sent through the means of communication provided in the bylaws, which notice shall state the time, place and purpose of the meetings.

Each notice of meeting shall further be accompanied by the following:

(a) The agenda for the meeting;

(b) A proxy form which shall be submitted to the corporate secretary within a reasonable time prior to the meeting;

(c) When attendance, participation, and voting are allowed by remote communication or in absentia, the requirements and procedures to be followed when a stockholder or member elects either option; and

(d) When the meeting is for the election of directors or trustees, the requirements and procedure for nomination and election.

All proceedings and any business transacted at a meeting of the stockholders or members, if within the powers or authority of the corporation, shall be valid even if the meeting is improperly held or called: Provided, That all the stockholders or members of the corporation are present or duly represented at the meeting and not one of them expressly states at the beginning of the meeting that the purpose of their attendance is to object to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.

SEC. 51. Quorum in Meetings. – Unless otherwise provided in this Code or in the bylaws, a quorum shall consist of the stockholders representing a majority of the outstanding capital stock or a majority of the members in the case of nonstock corporations.

SEC. 20. Corporation by Estoppel. – All persons who assume to act as a corporation knowing it to be without authority to do so shall be liable as general partners for all debts, liabilities and damages incurred or arising as a result thereof: Provided, however, That when any such ostensible corporation is sued on any transaction entered by it as a corporation or on any tort committed by it as such, it shall not be allowed to use its lack of corporate personality as a defense. Anyone who assumes an obligation to an ostensible corporation as such cannot resist performance thereof on the ground that there was in fact no corporation.

SEC. 49. Regular and Special Meetings of Stockholders or Members. – Regular meetings of stockholders or members shall be held annually on a date fixed in the bylaws, or if not so fixed, on any date after April 15 of every year as determined by the board of directors or trustees: Provided, That written notice of regular meetings shall be sent to all stockholders or members of record at least twenty-one (21) days prior to the meeting, unless a different period is required in the bylaws, law, or regulation: Provided, further, That written notice of regular meetings may be sent to all stockholders or members of record through electronic mail or such other manner as the Commission shall allow under its guidelines.

At each regular meeting of stockholders or members, the board of directors or trustees shall endeavor to present to stockholders or members the following:

a) The minutes of the most recent regular meeting which shall include, among others:

(1) A description of the voting and vote tabulation procedures used in the previous meeting;

(2) A description of the opportunity given to stockholders or members to ask questions and a record of the questions asked and answers given;

(3) The matters discussed and resolutions reached;

(4) A record of the voting results for each agenda item;

(5) A list of the directors or trustees, officers and stockholders or members who attended the meeting; and

(6) Such other items that the Commission may require in the interest of good corporate governance and the protection of minority stockholders.

b) A members’ list for nonstock corporations and, for stock corporations, material information on the current stockholders, and their voting rights;

c) A detailed, descriptive, balanced and comprehensible assessment of the corporation’s performance, which shall include information on any material change in the corporation’s business, strategy, and other affairs;

d) A financial report for the preceding year, which shall include financial statements duly signed and certified in accordance with this Code and the rules the Commission may prescribe, a statement on the adequacy of the corporation’s internal controls or risk management systems, and a statement of all external audit and non-audit fees;

e) An explanation of the dividend policy and the fact of payment of dividends or the reasons for nonpayment thereof;

f) Director or trustee profiles which shall include, among others, their qualifications and relevant experience, length of service in the corporation, trainings and continuing education attended, and their board representations in other corporations;

g) A director or trustee attendance report, indicating the attendance of each director or trustee at each of the meetings of the board and its committees and in regular or special stockholder meetings;

h) Appraisals and performance reports for the board and the criteria and procedure for assessment;

i) A director or trustee compensation report prepared in accordance with this Code and the rules the Commission may prescribe;

j) Director disclosures on self-dealings and related party transactions; and/or k) The profiles of directors nominated or seeking election or reelection.

A director, trustee, stockholder, or member may propose any other matter for inclusion in the agenda at any regular meeting of stockholders or members.

Special meetings of stockholders or members shall be held at any time deemed necessary or as provided in the bylaws: Provided, however, That at least one (1) week written notice shall be sent to all stockholders or members, unless a different period is provided in the bylaws, law or regulation.

A stockholder or member may propose the holding of a special meeting and items to be included in the agenda.

Notice of any meeting may be waived, expressly or impliedly, by any stockholder or member: Provided, That general waivers of notice in the articles of incorporation or the bylaws shall not be allowed: Provided, further, That attendance at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.

Whenever for any cause, there is no person authorized or the person authorized unjustly refuses to call a meeting, the Commission, upon petition of a stockholder or member on a showing of good cause therefor, may issue an order directing the petitioning stockholder or member to call a meeting of the corporation by giving proper notice required by this Code or the bylaws. The petitioning stockholder or member shall preside thereat until at least a majority of the stockholders or members present have chosen from among themselves, a presiding officer.

Unless the bylaws provide for a longer period, the stock and transfer book or membership book shall be closed at least twenty (20) days for regular meetings and seven (7) days for special meetings before the scheduled date of the meeting.

In case of postponement of stockholders’ or members’ regular meetings, written notice thereof and the reason therefor shall be sent to all stockholders or members of record at least two (2) weeks prior to the date of the meeting, unless a different period is required under the bylaws, law or regulation.

The right to vote of stockholders or members may be exercised in person, through a proxy, or when so authorized in the bylaws, through remote communication or in absentia. The Commission shall issue the rules and regulations governing participation and voting through remote communication or in absentia, taking into account the company’s scale, number of shareholders or members, structure, and other factors consistent with the protection and promotion of shareholders’ or member’s meetings.

SEC. 58. Voting Trusts. – One or more stockholders of a stock corporation may create a voting trust for the purpose of conferring upon a trustee or trustees the right to vote and other rights pertaining to the shares for a period not exceeding five (5) years at any time: Provided, That in the case of a voting trust specifically required as a condition in a loan agreement, said voting trust may be for a period exceeding five (5) years but shall automatically expire upon full payment of the loan. A voting trust agreement must be in writing and notarized, and shall specify the terms and conditions thereof. A certified copy of such agreement shall be filed with the corporation and with the Commission; otherwise, the agreement is ineffective and unenforceable. The certificate or certificates of stock covered by the voting trust agreement shall be cancelled and new ones shall be issued in the name of the trustee or trustees, stating that they are issued pursuant to said agreement. The books of the corporation shall state that the transfer in the name of the trustee or trustees is made pursuant to the voting trust agreement.

The trustee or trustees shall execute and deliver to the transferors, voting trust certificates, which shall be transferable in the same manner and with the same effect as certificates of stock.

The voting trust agreement filed with the corporation shall be subject to examination by any stockholder of the corporation in the same manner as any other corporate book or record: Provided, That both the trustor and the trustee or trustees may exercise the right of inspection of all corporate books and records in accordance with the provisions of this Code.

Any other stockholder may transfer the shares to the same trustee or trustees upon the terms and conditions stated in the voting trust agreement, and thereupon shall be bound by all the provisions of said agreement.

No voting trust agreement shall be entered into for purposes of circumventing the laws against anti-competitive agreements, abuse of dominant position, anti-competitive mergers and acquisitions, violation of nationality and capital requirements, or for the perpetuation of fraud.

Unless expressly renewed, all rights granted in a voting trust agreement shall automatically expire at the end of the agreed period. The voting trust certificates as well as the certificates of stock in the name of the trustee or trustees shall thereby be deemed cancelled and new certificates of stock shall be reissued in the name of the trustors.

The voting trustee or trustees may vote by proxy or in any manner authorized under the bylaws unless the agreement provides otherwise.

SEC. 108. Corporation sole. – For the purpose of administering and managing, as trustee, the affairs, property and temporalities of any religious denomination, sect or church, a corporation sole may be formed by the chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi, or other presiding elder of such religious denomination, sect, or church.

SEC. 102. Amendment of Articles of Incorporation. – Any amendment to the articles of incorporation which seeks to delete or remove any provision required by this Title or to reduce a quorum or voting requirement stated in said articles of incorporation shall require the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock, whether with or without voting rights, or of such greater proportion of shares as may be specifically provided in the articles of incorporation for amending, deleting or removing any of the aforesaid provisions, at a meeting duly called for the purpose.

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